Nevada Water Science Center

Surface-Water/Groundwater Model Development

New methods are being developed to simulate the interaction between surface water and groundwater by developing computer programs that link surface processes (rainfall/runoff) to infiltration and groundwater recharge and route flows along streams while simulating the interaction between groundwater and surface water.

We have a talented team of modellers, hydrologists, and programmers that keep us at the forefront of hydraulic and hydrologic modelling. We also host a large cluster of high-throughput computing equipment for running model simulations.

Highlights from our modelling work:

Toward improved simulation of river operations through integration with a hydrologic model

by Eric Morway, Richard Niswonger, and Enrique Triana

Environmental Modelling and Software, v. 82, p. 255-274

Advanced modeling tools are needed for informed water resources planning and management. Two classes of modeling tools are often used to this end...

T-COMP—A suite of programs for extracting transmissivity from MODFLOW models

by Keith J. Halford

U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A54

Simulated transmissivities are constrained poorly by assigning permissible ranges of hydraulic conductivities from aquifer-test results to hydrogeologic units in groundwater-flow models...

PHT3D-UZF: A reactive transport model for variably-saturated porous media

by Ming Zhi Wu, Vincent E. A. Post, S. Ursula Salmon, Eric Morway, and H. Prommer

Groundwater, v. 54, p. 23-34

A modified version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive transport model PHT3D was developed to extend current reactive transport capabilities to the variably-saturated component of the subsurface system and incorporate diffusive reactive transport of gaseous species...

Background

Problems that involve the interaction of groundwater and surface water are becoming increasingly
important in managing water resources in the western United States. Improving the connection of
surface-water models to groundwater models is important to improving our ability to adequately
assess the effects of withdrawing groundwater on surface water supplies or assessing changes in
surface-water resources on groundwater supplies. New models that can better simulate these interactions are needed, especially models that can consider the effects of climate change on water resources.

Previous Publications

Niswonger, R.G., Allander, K.K., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Collaborative modelling and integrated decision support system analysis of a developed terminal lake basin: Journal of Hydrology, v. 517, p. 521-537, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.043

Allander, K.K., Niswonger, R.G., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5190, 93 p.

Bailey, R.T., Morway, E.D., Niswonger, R.G., and Gates, T.K., 2013, Modeling variably saturated multispecies reactive groundwater solute transport with MODFLOW-UZF and RT3D: Groundwater, v. 51.

Garcia, C.A., Halford, K.J., and Fenelon, J.M., 2013, Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models: Groundwater, v. 51.

Halford, K.J., Garcia, C.A., Fenelon, J.M., and Mirus, B.B, 2013, Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 4-F4, 29 p.

Niswonger, R.G., Panday, Sorab, and Ibaraki, Motomu, 2011, MODFLOW-NWT, A Newton formulation for MODFLOW-2005: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6–A37, 44 p.

Bedekar, V., Niswonger, R.G., Kipp, K., Panday, S., and Tonkin, M., 2011, Approaches to the Simulation of Unconfined Flow and perched Groundwater Flow in MODFLOW: Ground Water, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00829.x

Niswonger, R.G., and Fogg, G.E., 2008, Influence of perched groundwater on base flow: Water Resour. Res., 44, W03405, doi:10.1029/2007WR006160.

Niswonger R.G., Prudic, D.E., Fogg, G.E., Stonestrom, D.A., and Buckland, E.M., 2008, Method for estimating spatially variable seepage loss and hydraulic conductivity in intermittent and ephemeral streams: Water Resour. Res., 44, W05418, doi:10.1029/2007WR006626.

Hunt, R.J., Prudic, D.E., Walker, J.F., and Anderson, M.P., 2008, Importance of Unsaturated Zone Flow for Simulating Recharge in a Humid Climate: Ground Water, v. 46, p. 551-560

Markstrom, S.L., Niswonger, R.G., Regan, R.S., Prudic, D.E., and Barlow, P.M., 2007, GSFLOW
—Coupled groundwater and surface-water flow model based on the integration of the
precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (pRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model
(MODFLOW-2005)
: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-D1, 240 p.

Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., and Regan, R.S., 2006, Documentation of the unsaturated-zone
flow (UZF1) package for modeling unsaturated flow between the land surface and the water table
with MODFLOW-2005
: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A19, 62 p.

Markstrom, S.L., Regan, R.S., Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., and Viger, R.J., 2006, GSFLOW—A
basin-scale model for coupled simulation of ground-water and surface-water flow—part A. concepts for modeling saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow with the U.S. Geological Survey
modular ground-water model: Joint 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation and 3rd Hydrologic
Modeling Conferences, Reno, Nev., April 2-6, 2006.
.
Niswonger, R.G., Markstrom, L.S., Regan, R.S., Prudic, D.E., Pohll, G., and Viger, R.J., 2006,
Modeling Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction with GSFLOW, a New USGS Model:
proceedings, MODFLOW and more 2006—Managing Ground-Water Systems, Golden, Colo., May
21-24, 2006, p. 99-103.

Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., Markstrom, L.S., Regan, R.S., and Viger, R.J., 2006, GSFLOW—A
basin-scale model for coupled simulation of ground-water and surface-water flow—part B.
concepts for modeling saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow with the U.S. Geological Survey
modular ground-water model: Joint 8th Federal Interagency Sedimentation and 3rd Hydrologic
Modeling Conferences, Reno, Nev., April 2-6, 2006.

Niswonger, R.G., Prudic, D.E., Pohll, Greg, Constantz, Jim, 2005, Incorporating seepage losses
into the unsteady streamflow equations for simulating intermittent flow along mountain front
streams: Water Resources Research, v. 41, no. 6, p. 6006.

Niswonger, R.G., Regan, R.S., Prudic, D.E., Markstrom, S.L., Pohll, G., and Viger, R.J., 2005,
Modeling ground-water recharge from precipitation development and implementation of the
GSFLOW model: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 30.

Niswonger, R.G., and Prudic, D.E., 2005, Documentation of the streamflow-routing (SFR2)
package to include unsaturated flow beneath streams--A modification to SFR1
: U.S. Geological
Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A13, 48 p.

Prudic, D.E., Konikow, L.F., and Banta, E.R., 2004, A New Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) package
to Simulate Stream-Aquifer Interaction with MODFLOW-2000
: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File
Report 2004-1042, 95 p.

Niswonger, R.G., and Prudic, D.E., 2004, Modeling variably saturated flow using kinematic waves
in MODFLOW in Hogan, J.F., phillips, F.M., and Scanlon, B.R., eds., Groundwater recharge in a
desert environment: American Geophysical Union, Water Science and Application 9, p. 101-112

Niswonger, R.G., and Prudic, D.E., 2003, A kinematic wave solution for simulating unsaturated
flow beneath streams using MODFLOW: proceedings, MODFLOW and more 2003—
Understanding through modeling, Golden, Colo., September 16-19, 2003, p. 149

Niswonger, R.G., and Prudic, D.E., 2003, Appendix B—Modeling heat as a tracer to estimate
streambed seepage and hydraulic conductivity, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, Jim, ed., Heat
as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey
Circular 1260, p. 81-89.

Niswonger, R.G., and Prudic, D.E., 2003, Modeling heat as a tracer to estimate streambed
seepage and hydraulic conductivity, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, J., eds., Heat as a tool
for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260,
p. 81-89.

Bartolino, J.R., and Niswonger, R.G., 1999, Numerical simulations of vertical ground-water fluxes of the Rio Grande from ground-water temperature profiles, Central New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4212, 34 p.

Constantz, Jim, Niswonger, R.G., and Stewart, A.E., 1999, The use of heat as a tracer to estimate recharge beneath streams and artificial recharge ponds, in Bartlett, R.D., ed., Artificial Recharge of Groundwater: Amer. Soc. Civil. Engineering (proceedings), p. 193-203.

Niswonger, R.G., and Rupp, J. L., 2000, Monte Carlo analysis of streambed seepage rates, in Wigington, p.J., and Beschta, R.C., (eds.), International conference on riparian ecology and management in multi-land use watersheds: portland, Oregon, August 2000, American Water Resources Association, proceedings, p. 161-166.

Constantz, Jim, Stonestrom, D.A., Stewart, A.E., Niswonger, R.G., and Smith, T.R., 2001, Analysis of streambed temperatures in ephemeral channels to determine streamflow frequency and duration: Water Resources Research, v. 37, no. 2, p. 317-328.

Constantz, Jim, Stewart, A.E., Niswonger, R.G., and Sarma, Lisa, 2002, Analysis of temperature profiles for investigating stream losses beneath ephemeral channels: Water Resources Research, v. 38, no. 12, p. 52-1 to 52-13.

Prudic, D.E., Niswonger, R.G., Wood, J.L, and Henkelman, K.K., 2003, Trout Creek—estimating flow duration and seepage losses along an intermittent stream tributary to the Humboldt River, Lander and Humboldt Counties, Nevada, in Stonestrom, D.A., and Constantz, Jim, eds., Heat as a tool for studying the movement of ground water near streams: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1260, p. 57-71.

Prudic, D.E., 2001, Modeling surface-water interaction with ground water using MODFLOW 2000:
Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass., November 5-8, 2001,
paper No. 169-0

Fenske, J.P., and Prudic, D.E., 1998, Development of HMS/MODFLOW for simulation of surface
and groundwater flow: MODFLOW '98, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, October 1998,
Proceedings, v. 1, p. 463-470.

 

Models

GSFLOW and associated programs are available from MODFLOW web page.

Additional Information about this program is also available from the USGS Ground Water Resources Web Site.

Quick Facts

Location: Nationwide

Cooperators: USGS Office of Groundwater

Contact Information

Eric Morway

USGS Nevada Water Science Center

2730 N. Deer Run Rd.

Carson City, NV 89701

phone: (775) 887-7668

Email: emorway@usgs.gov

 

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